Grey Heron

The Grey Heron: Photographed at Bhigwan. Bhigwan is a small dusty town on the border of Pune and Solapur district in Central Maharashtra, India. South of Bhigwan town, exists a widespread backwater formed due to a man made dam built on the Bhima river. The dam is called as Ujni dam. There are two areas where one can see the migratory water birds. 1) Diksal-Parewadi area and 2) Dalaj – Kumbharwadi area. From here, one can hire a small fishing boat to locate exotic species
such as flamingo etc. The grey heron, is a wading bird of the heron family. Found throughout Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa. It is a large bird, standing up to 100 cm (39 in) tall and measuring 84–102 cm (33–40 in) long with a 155–195 cm (61–77 in) wingspan. The body weight can range from 1.02–2.08 kg. Its plumage is largely grey above, and off-white below. Adults have a white head with a broad black supercilium and slender crest, while immatures have a dull grey head. It has a powerful, pinkish-yellow bill, which is brighter in breeding adults. It has a slow flight, with its long neck retracted (S-shaped). This is characteristic of herons and bitterns, and distinguishes them from storks, cranes and spoonbills, which extend their necks. The call is a loud croaking. Gray Heron breeds in colonies in trees close to lakes, the seashore or other wetlands. It builds a bulky stick nest.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_4892 Grey Heron

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  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Black-Shouldered Kite (Hovering)

Black-Shouldered Kite (Hovering), Photographed at Amba Ghat. Amba ghat is a mountain pass on Ratnagiri-Kolhapur road (NH 204) in Maharashtra, India, at a height of 2000 ft above sea-level, This ghat lies in the Sahyadri mountain ranges (Western Ghats) and has picturesque mountain scapes and a pleasant climate. The black-shouldered kite is a small raptor. The adult black-shouldered kite is a small and graceful, predominantly pale grey and white, raptor with black shoulders and red eyes. Their primary call is a clear whistle, uttered in flight and while hovering. Black-shouldered kites live almost exclusively on mice. Their prey also includes grasshoppers, crickets and other large insects, lizards and rodents. Injured birds, small snakes and frogs. The black-shouldered kite flies slowly during hunting like a harrier, but it will also hover. When hunting the kite hovers with its body hanging almost vertically.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_2197 Black-Shouldered Kite (Hovering)

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  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

The Indian Wild Boar

The Indian wild Boar, Photographed at Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh state in India. The Indian Boar also known as the Andamanese Pig.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_3336 The Indian wild Boar

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  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Barasingha Female

Barasingha Female, photographed at Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh state in India.

The barasingha also called Swamp Deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent. The barasingha is a large deer with a shoulder height of 44 to 46 in. and a head-to-body length of nearly 6 ft. Its hair is rather woolly and yellowish brown above but paler below, with white spots along the spine. The throat, belly, inside of the thighs and beneath the tail is white. In summer the coat becomes bright rufous-brown. The neck is maned. Females are paler than males.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_3172 Barasingha Female

WANT TO BUY PHOTOGRAPH AS A PRINT?
PRICE FROM: INR 15600.00 / US $255.00

  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Barasingha Male

Barasingha male, Photographed at Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh state in India.

The barasingha also called swamp deer, is a deer species distributed in the Indian subcontinent. The barasingha is a large deer with a shoulder height of 44 to 46 in. and a head-to-body length of nearly 6 ft. Its hair is rather woolly and yellowish brown above but paler below, with white spots along the spine. The throat, belly, inside of the thighs and beneath the tail is white. In summer the coat becomes bright rufous-brown. The neck is maned. Females are paler than males.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_3375 Barasingha Male

WANT TO BUY PHOTOGRAPH AS A PRINT?
PRICE FROM: INR 15600.00 / US $255.00

  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Back-Button AF: What it is and how to use it?

Canon-5Ds-rear-1200Nikon-D810back-1200

One of the most frequent questions I have received is about Back Button Focus AF and how to use it on Canon and Nikon DSLR cameras. In this article you’ll learn what is Back Button Focus AF, and how to Back Button Focus AF for Canon and Nikon cameras.

For many years I used the shutter button to AF the subject. Some time I missed shot because my camera is in one shot AF Mode and subject (bird) moved very fast to capture. In shutter button AF mode you have to switch back and forth from One Shot AF to AI Servo AF depending on your subject.  Naw I use full-time Back-Button AF from last five years.

Canon is the  world’s first camera maker to incorporate such a feature, launching it back in 1989 with the EOS 630.

What is Back-Button AF?

The camera usually focuses when the shutter button is pressed halfway down, and then the photographer takes the picture when the button is pressed in fully. Many SLR cameras have offered photographers an option to change the way autofocus is activated. Often referred to by pros as “Back-Button AF”, this feature lets the user customize the camera so that focusing is performed by pressing a rear button on the top right back of the camera with the photographer’s right thumb. The shutter button still wakes up the camera with a half-press, and fires the shutter with a full press downward. You need to change a custom function or two to set up rear focus. And with some systems you set up rear focus via the camera’s menu. You can consult your camera body user manual to learn to set up rear focus.

Why would anyone want to remove AF from the shutter button?

This is a question many users ask me when Back-button AF is first explained to them. The standard method of operation, press the shutter button half-way down to focus, and then press fully to shoot it works perfectly. But back-button AF offers some significant advantages, especially for the experienced photographer.

  • Use AI-Servo for all time:

    The two main types of autofocus on your camera are (on a Canon) One-Shot and AI-Servo. On a Nikon they are called AF-Single (AF-S) and AF-Continuous (AF-C). One-Shot means that when you press your AF-ON button (or the shutter halfway down) your camera will set focus one time based on where the subject is at the given time. If your subject moves or if you move, you have to reset your focus. This method wouldn’t work very well if you were photographing subjects moving very fast, i.e. wildlife, birds or sports and action.

    That’s why there’s another method of focusing called AI-Servo (AF-C on Nikon). This method blew me away the first time I discovered it. Servo focusing actually tracks focusing on moving subjects. You can place a single focus point on subject in Servo mode and fire off as many shots as your camera can take before the buffer runs out. Assuming that you have a fast enough shutter speed, you should have a very high percentage of sharp, in focus images.

    So the thing I started to notice about having the camera in Servo mode is that I could use Servo just like One-Shot. You see, to use Servo focusing with Back-button AF you have to continuously hold down the AF-ON button to track focus. So if you have a still subject you can simply tap the AF-ON button and focus will stop adjusting when you let go of the button. I’ve found that if you have a still subject and hold down the AF-ON button in Servo mode, the camera will keep trying to work to find focus. So the subject will start going slightly in and out of focus because the camera thinks it should be looking for a moving subject. But again, if you simply tap the AF-ON button and let go when you see that your subject is in focus, you are good to go. When you practise this, it’s a very fast process that really takes no brain power or time at all.

    Aside from possibly better AI Servo AF tracking for Birds flight photography there are other advantages to using rear focus. In short, you have the best of all worlds all the time. When using rear focus you always have AI Servo (Continuous for Nikon) set. You will never need to switch back and forth from AI Servo to One Shot. To photograph flying birds or to focus track walking, running, or swimming birds (or perched birds that are changing their posture or head position almost continuously simply press and hold the rear button to focus track that you have set for AF and press the shutter button when you want to create an image.

  • Easier to lock focus:

    If you are shooting something like a series of portraits of a person, and you want them composed off-center, Back-Button AF makes it easy to take as many pictures as you want. Focus on your subject by pressing either the rear AE Lock button or if your camera is equipped with the rear AF-ON button. Once in-focus, take your thumb off the rear button. Re-compose the shot to move your subject off-center. Shoot as many pictures as you like. With focus activation removed from the shutter button, you now can fire any time you like, and remove your index finger from the shutter button after a shot is taken. The camera Will not re-focus when you press the shutter button half-way down again.

  • Easier timing of shots with a very active subject:

    Even with a very active subject i.e. birds, wildlife etc. that may be moving around, you can have your camera’s focus set to AI Servo AF (to track any movement), and just keep your right thumb on the back button to keep focus active, while your index finger can be ready to shoot with no worries about also preserving focus.

  • Less risk of focus errors with moving subjects:

    For wildlife, bird, sports or action photographers taking action pictures, back-button AF lets you stop focus whenever something might interfere with the moving subject you’re tracking without requiring you to stop shooting. In wildlife, for instance, it’s common that some another subject to come between the camera and a subject being photographed. With back-button AF, it’s easy to momentarily pull your thumb off the rear button, and you can still keep shooting by pressing the shutter button fully. The camera instantly stops focusing when your thumb comes off the back button. Once the obstruction is out of your way, you can immediately pick-up your primary subject by pressing your thumb on the back button again.

  • Easier over-riding of AF with full-time manual focus:

    Some lenses have a feature called full-time manual focus. Even if the lens’s AF/MF switch is in the AF position, these lenses allow the shooter to instantly adjust focus manually by simply turning the focus ring on the lens. There’s no need to first move the switch to MF. With back-button AF, this becomes a nearly top feature. Use the autofocus whenever you like by pressing the rear button with your right thumb. Shoot whenever you like by pressing the shutter button. And if you want manual focus, or override what the AF is doing, just pull your thumb off the rear button and turn the focusing ring. No matter how many pictures you shoot, pressing the shutter button will not auto focus.

  • Easier macro and close-up focusing:

    Many times, you’ll find that it’s actually easier to get consistently sharp close-up pictures of small objects by pre-focusing, and then moving yourself forward or backward until you see the critical sharp focus appear in your viewfinder. Once again, with back-button AF active, you can use the AF to get within general range (press the rear button with your thumb, then take your thumb off the button), and move a little bit to get things critically sharp. Most important, you can then shoot freely, without AF trying to re-focus each time you touch the shutter button. Finally, touching-up focus with the full-time manual focus feature on certain Canon lenses is simple and quick, and the autofocus never fights you by trying to un-do what you just adjusted.

I believes that when the shutter is released that AF tracking may be momentarily interrupted but when you use rear focus the camera continues to track well even when the shutter is released.

Activating back-button AF

You need to change a custom function or two to set up rear focus. And with some systems you set up rear focus via the camera’s menu. You can consult your camera body user manual to learn to set up rear focus. Remember, to use any Custom Function, your camera must first be in one of the P – Program, AV – Aperture Value /A –  Aperture Priority, TV – Time Value / S – Shutter Priority or M – Manual Mode.

Making the change from the shutter button to rear focus is first time hard and takes lots of getting used to, it takes a bit of retraining of the brain and the thumb to get used to rear focusing. But I have stuck with it for more than five years and will never go back.

Finally, remember that if you don’t like Back-Button AF , you can return the camera back to factory-default operation any time.

Indian Roller male and female in courtship

Indian Roller male and female in courtship
Indian Roller male and female in courtship

Indian Roller male and female in courtship, Photographed at Kanha Tiger Reserve, also called Kanha National Park is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of Madhya Pradesh state in India. The Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis), is a member of the roller family of birds. They are found widely across tropical Asia stretching from Iraq eastward across the Indian Subcontinent to Indochina and are best known for the aerobatic displays of the male during the breeding season. They are very commonly seen perched along roadside trees and wires and are commonly seen in open grassland and scrub forest habitats. It is not migratory, but undertakes some seasonal movements. The largest populations of the species are within India, and Several states in India have chosen it as their state bird.

 

Photograph ID: _MG_3505 Indian Roller male and female in courtship

WANT TO BUY PHOTOGRAPH AS A PRINT?
PRICE FROM: INR 15600.00 / US $255.00

  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Understanding Histograms in Photography

Understanding Histograms in Photography:

Histograms display a graphic representation of the exposure on a captured image. They provide highly accurate information, but their use is often ignored.

How Histogram work?
Histogram-legend2Histograms are a graph showing brightness levels of pixels in a recorded image. The camera’s processor arranges each Pixel recorded in sensor, on a horizontal scale on the histogram, according to its relative brightness from 0 ie pure black to 255 ie pure white.
Bright pixels are located on the right Side of the graph and darker pixels on the left side of the graph. Brightest pixels which are reproduce pure white and darkest pixels which are reproduce pure black with no detail, would be at the extreme right / left edges of a histogram. The height of the graph within a histogram Shows how many pixels in a scene were recorded at a given exposure level.

How to read a histogram :
Histograms Shows the brightness information from a specific image, but there are no “good” or “bad” histograms. Different subjects can generate completely different histograms, but both are properly exposed.
For example, a white Subject on a white background, if properly exposed, will generate a histogram to the right side, because there are no or very few shadows and mid-tones. In this example, all the pixels in the image will show a high brightness level in a properly exposed image.
a black Subject on a black background will display a histogram to the left, which normally would be a sign of under exposure, but in this case, in the actual scene, there are few mid-tones and no highlights. In this example, all the pixels in the image will show low shadow level in a properly exposed image.
So, the photographer needs to think of the subject and scene, if the subject is white against a white background, and a histogram shows lots of pixels in the middle of the image, it is a clear sign to the photographer that this particular image is under-exposed.Histogram-legend
One of the easiest ways to quickly use a histogram is to look at its graphic values, and simply ask if any of the bright areas on the right side, or dark areas on the left side, are touching edges of the histogram and the extreme left or right graph line extend vertically. Either condition indicates SOME area of the scene is reproducing as an over-exposed white, or an under-exposed black tone.
Now, it’s again up to the photographer to think for a moment. If the scene is a snow-covered field or a Person in a white dress in bright background, and the bulk of the histogram is pushed against the right edge of the graph and cut off along the right, it’s a clear indication that the image is over-exposed, and that another picture should be taken with reduced exposure.
But, it is possible to have a properly exposed scene with bright objects, such as the sun in the frame, which do appear as over-exposed areas. If these are the only areas in the scene that are washed out and the histogram is telling you that the image is over exposed but the exposure is actually correct. So don’t immediately think that there is a problem if part of the histogram is cut-off along the left or right side, until you have thought about the scene and subjects within it.
A histogram is a great tool for judging whether the brightness range of a scene will fit within the dynamic range of the camera. If the exposure graph fits within the histogram’s left and right margins, it means we have an easily workable and printable image. If the histogram is pushed up against either side, it means some parts of the image will be too light or too dark to reproduce with detail.
A “good” histogram doesn’t have to stretch entirely from the left to right side to indicate proper overall exposure. But if its peaks, large and small, all fit within the left/right borders, it is telling you that nothing in the scene will reproduce as a washed out white, or a black with zero detail.

Colour RGB Histogram :
Conventional histograms measure only brightness, as recorded in an image file. But, it is possible to view histograms that not only show overall brightness, but the brightness of each color channel. Most cameras offer the choice to display a brightness histogram or a colour RGB histogram.
For most users, the Brightness histogram is sufficient to evaluate exposure when reviewing images. But, there are situations where it can be useful to view a graph of all three color channels. The RGB histogram can inform a user when there is a color shift , which is useful when trying to white balance a known neutral colored test subject. It can also be helpful for determining whether any single color channel is at risk of being appear too light or too dark.

Highlight alert display:
Most SLR cameras have a setting called “highlight alert”. It will make any overexposed highlights blink when you preview your images on your camera screen. For how to activate this function on your camera please refer your camera manual.

Remember, RAW files will always offer more room to correct exposure and other problems. Correcting improper exposures during image editing in the computer has limitations and often results in a loss of image quality. Histograms give the photographer a tool to evaluate and perform corrections immediately after an image is taken, which means that less time is later spent at the computer trying to optimize images.

Under Exposed

Normal ExposureOver Exposed

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WANT TO BUY PHOTOGRAPH AS A PRINT?
PRICE FROM: INR 15600.00 / US $255.00

  • All prints are limited edition. Only 840 prints of any size will be made. I reserve the right to keep 15 of each limited edition prints for my own use. So essentially 825 prints are available for sale.
  • All Bhushan Shikhare limited edition prints are assigned a unique number and hand-signed by Bhushan Shikhare. Each image includes a certificate of authenticity.

Bhushan’s Gear

Bhushan Shikhare in the field with gear
Bhushan Shikhare in the field with gear

 

One of the most common questions that I am asked is “what gear do you use?”   The products below are what I am currently using. Everything mentioned or listed has been tested by me in the field for years and I can honestly say I think it is the best out there.

In terms of Nikon vs Canon, I think they are both great.   Canon (as well as other manufactures) makes an incredible product.  It is more about what you feel comfortable with.  I personally prefer and use Canon for a number of small reasons, but I would highly recommend Nikon as well.

Please note that although the gear I have listed is fairly expensive, you DO NOT need expensive gear to create excellent images.  Great gear does make a difference in terms of technical quality, durability, ease of use and other factors and I advise using quality products, but creating a powerful, creative image is all about the photographer and the light.

I strongly believe in keeping my gear as light and simple as possible. This is a complete list of all the gear that I use and recommend to my readers.

I use a Canon 5D Mk II and Canon 50D for shooting landscapes and Nature. I carry four lenses total, two of them extremely small and light.   A wide-angle Canon EF 24-105mm L IS USM, a telephoto prime Canon EF 300mm f4 L IS USM, a Canon 1.4X extender, a telephoto zoom Canon 70-300mm L IS USM and a Canon EF 50mm f1.8 prime.

I use a Manfrotto Tripod and Manfrotto ballhead, Hoya ND filters, Hoya polarizing filter and a Lowepro Camera bag.

This list will continue to evolve as my gear changes, as technology continues and as my needs are altered by the work that I am doing.